Wednesday, January 15, 2014

Latest Batch of Google Searches


“isfj hard to find”: Um . . . no. We’re supposedly the most common type in the American population. We practically grow on trees (which is why we’re not considered one of the “cool” types). If you’re having a hard time finding an ISFJ, it’s either because we don’t like to call attention to ourselves or we’re mistyping ourselves as INFJs or INFPs to avoid ridicule.

“is isfj phlegmatic”: I don’t think there is a direct correlation between type and temperament, but of the ISFJs I know, they all have some Phlegmatic in them, though perhaps not dominantly. (I’m a Mel-Phleg, for instance.)

“great expectations estella intj”: Probably not. More like ISTJ. The Great Expectations post needs to be overhauled.

“isfj in criminal justice”: Once again, people, this blog is not here to give career advice. If you as an ISFJ want to go into criminal justice, there’s no reason why you shouldn’t. It’s a worthy field.

“entj isfj love”: Uh . . . can’t help you there. I don’t think I know any ENTJs, and if I did, whatever we would feel for each other probably wouldn’t be love.

“infj my brother is an isfj blogspot”: You and your brother probably have enough in common to get along fairly well, since you share your auxiliary and tertiary functions. My brother happens to be INTJ, and we share no functions at all, which can make understanding each other more of a challenge.

“jane an isfj”: There are many Janes out there, and odds are at least one of them is an ISFJ. But I can’t help you if you aren’t more specific than that.

“jane eyre the hunter games”: ???

“isfj characters from percy Jackson”: Having only read the first book in that series and that not recently, I can’t help you on this one. There probably is though.

“tobymac estp”: I don’t type celebrities, sorry.

“self-centered isfj”: Why do people keep searching this one, and how did this idea get started? We’re no more self-centered than any other type. At their best, ISFJs can be quite self-sacrificial.

“how isfj develop ti”: My Ti isn’t as developed as I would like, but the Logic class I took in college was very enlightening. It helped that I liked and shared a basic worldview with the professor. Since my Si and Fe didn’t feel threatened in the class, the Ti was free to learn. Puzzles that require logic also are a way that some ISFJs use as a means to relax (remember, the tertiary function is the “relief” function) and exercise a function they might not use as much.

“mbti bbc sherlock intj molly infp”: Sherlock is not an INTJ. He has no drive to structure, organize, and plan, and he is not motivated by vision for the future. He’s more likely either of the dominant Introverted Thinking types, ISTP or INTP—it’s hard to tell. You could make an argument for either. As for Molly, I see her as more of an ISFJ, but I haven’t seen the latest season and don’t know where they’ve taken her character.

“isfj greek”: There are ISFJs in Greece. There are ISFJs who speak Greek. This blog has nothing to do with either one of those facts.

“isfj antisocial”: As an Introvert (and a former homeschooler), I’ve had this label tacked on me for years. It falls under the “You keep using the word. I do not think it means what you think it means” category. Let’s look at the Oxford English Dictionary. First definition: “contrary to the laws and customs of society, in a way that causes annoyance and disapproval in others.” By extension, “sociopathic,” which means related to “a personality disorder manifesting itself in extreme antisocial attitudes and behavior.” Second definition: “not sociable or wanting the company of others.” With their auxiliary Extroverted Feeling, ISFJs are very conscious of social norms and try not to intentionally offend people. I doubt they’re likely to exhibit sociopathic behavior. And while as Introverts, ISFJs are not extremely outgoing and need time alone to recharge, they are not like that one hundred percent of the time. We like people in general (as long as they behave themselves and are considerate of others) and spending time with family and friends. So, in any sense of the word, antisocial is not a fitting description of an ISFJ. And Introverts would appreciate it if society stopped slapping that label on them without considering what it really means.

Tuesday, November 19, 2013

Types in P. G. Wodehouse's Psmith Stories: Part Two


Mike Jackson: ISFP

Introverted (energized by one’s thoughts and impressions)

Sensing (concrete and realistic)

Feeling (bases decisions on values)

Perceiving (adaptable and spontaneous)

Dominant Function: Introverted Feeling (Fi)

The dominant function is one’s “default setting,” the function one feels most comfortable using. Fi is concerned with focusing on personal/individual values, experiencing intense emotions which are not directly expressed and may be concealed, expressing feelings indirectly, understanding and defining personal feelings/values and likes and dislikes, determining what is worthy of being valued and stood up for, balancing peace and conflict, striving for consistency of values.

The basic conflict of Mike and Psmith is based on Mike’s Fi: he has decided that Sedleigh and all its works are evil, and therefore he will have nothing to do with it. Mike’s personal values are a major driving force in his choices, and he is willing to go to great extremes out of conscientiousness. He breaks out of school to help Jellicoe and takes the blame for Mr. Waller’s banking error because he believes it is the right thing to do (in some cases, regardless of rules). Although he is “naturally sympathetic” as a result of his value system, he struggles with expressing his feelings directly and consequently can come across as shy, awkward, or brusque. His likes and dislikes are strong; he is conscious of how he feels about a given situation or person and does not base his emotions on those of others (as opposed to the Fe that Psmith uses, which is conscious of group values/emotions). When his values are violated, he is quick to stand up for himself (e.g. when the crowds listening to Mr. Waller’s speech turn hostile and potentially violent, he lashes out against the perpetrator) but prefers in general to avoid conflict. He is generally willing to join Psmith’s schemes but will not hesitate to call him out if he goes too far.

Auxiliary Function: Extroverted Sensing (Se)

The auxiliary function assists and balances the dominant function and is used when one helps or mentors someone. Se is concerned with taking in sensory information, “here and now” mentality, taking immediate action, interacting with one’s immediate environment, living in the moment, thrill-seeking.

Se accounts for Mike’s proficiency at sports, which require both environmental awareness and immediate action. Conversely to Psmith’s more theoretical outlook, Mike is more of a man of action. Rather than speculating about what to do, he would rather take immediate action to solve a problem (e.g. instead of the slower process of talking the crowd at Mr. Waller’s speech into calming down, he takes the more direct route of fighting). Whenever he is in a position to help someone, it is usually in a practical way (e.g. breaking out of school and cycling to Lower Borlock to pay Jellicoe’s debt). Like Psmith, he has a need for stimulation, but he requires it in the form of excitement/action more than intellectual puzzles. Being cooped up in the bank is a hardship when he’d rather be back in Shropshire enjoying the outdoors and playing cricket, and he has difficulty adjusting to school life without sports. Like Psmith, he struggles with mundane routine. Se also affects his vocation later in life; he chooses to be a farmer in the country, where he would have constant access to the sensory experiences of working in the outdoors.

Tertiary Function: Introverted iNtuition (Ni)

The tertiary function is the area where one seeks guidance and accepts help, where one is either childish or childlike and vulnerable. It can also be a source of relief, a means of unwinding, or how one expresses creativity. Ni is concerned with connecting seemingly unrelated ideas, system-building, strategizing toward one definite outcome, reading between the lines, using insight, expressing through symbols/analogies, long-term planning, expecting outcomes not based on external data, having a vision for the future and a plan to get there.

Mike’s Ni isn’t often visible. It mostly comes out when he’s with Psmith, giving him the ability to read between the lines of his friend’s garrulousness and to understand where he’s coming from when most don’t. He even has a few Ni “aha” moments in Mike and Psmith after his confrontation with Adair, in which his eyes are opened to the ridiculousness of his animosity toward Sedleigh and refusal to play cricket for them. And he is even capable of using a degree of forward thinking in cricket, though it’s always based on his experience (Se). But most of the time, Ni is more of a struggle for him. He tends to look at things on the surface, doesn’t always consider the consequences of his actions, and prefers action to strategy.

Inferior Function: Extroverted Thinking (Te)

The area one is at one’s weakest in and least comfortable using, something one might aspire to but not be able to use well. It can emerge in times of great stress as a negative version of itself. Te is concerned with making sure procedures are efficient, less concerned with precision than clarity, finding practical/pragmatic solutions, aiming for achievement and success, using external data to prove a point, planning and organizing to achieve a definite goal, using orderly logic in clear steps.

Although Mike’s inferior Te seems somewhat expressed through his leadership in cricket, this function is the area in which he struggles most. Lack of planning, thinking through things, structure, and pragmatism are what usually cause most of his problems (e.g. if he had not lost his head after getting caught outside the school at night after helping Jellicoe, most of the subsequent boot/shoe issues could have been avoided). He doesn’t respond well to rules and regulations, at school or at work in the bank. Under stress, inferior Te can emerge as judgments of incompetence, aggressive criticism, and precipitous action, all of which Mike displays at one time or another. When he first arrives at Sedleigh, he is quick to find fault with everything and everyone he encounters, even the innocent porter (“He thought for instance, that he had never seen a more repulsive porter, or one more obviously incompetent than the man who had attached himself with a firm grasp to the handle of the bag as he strode off in the direction of the luggage-van. He disliked his voice, his appearance, and the colour of his hair. Also the boots he wore. He hated the station, and the man who took his ticket.”). He develops a cynical, negative outlook toward the school, and later, the bank after the prolonged strain of working there. After Mr. Downing accuses him of painting the dog, he explodes in a flurry of angry criticism (albeit when alone with Psmith, and becomes rather bitingly sarcastic to Mr. Bickersdyke after the latter ruins his century and gets him bowled out of his cricket game. He resorts to precipitous action when a opportunity to escape work at the bank for cricket presents itself, and he jumps at the chance.

Note Mike and Psmith share none of the same functions and that none of their functions are in the same order—Mike’s Feeling and Sensing are his strongest points, while Psmith uses his iNtuition and Thinking more. Each has an area of insight that the other lacks, giving their relationship balance.

Monday, November 18, 2013

Types in P. G. Wodehouse's Psmith Stories: Part One

[The following was originally written for my Tumblr blogand will be followed eventually by the types of other characters in the series, individually for the more major characters. This is a different format for this blog but will be more in-depth. However, it will not necessarily be the new rule for all future posts.]

Rupert Psmith: ENTP

Extroverted (energized by social interaction and the outer world)

iNtuitive (innovative and theorizing)

Thinking (bases decisions on logic)

Perceiving (adaptable and spontaneous)

Dominant Function: Extroverted iNtuition (Ne)

The dominant function is one’s “default setting,” the function one feels most comfortable using. Ne is concerned with exploring possibilities, developing multiple ideas and trying as many as possible, innovating, being creative, initiating concepts for projects, looking for new options, picking up on hidden meanings and interpreting them, brainstorming and strategizing from here-and-now.

Psmith’s Ne is evident from the very first in his decision to defy convention by changing the spelling of his name. His “never confuse the unusual with the impossible” tenet is characteristic of Ne, which never does things the expected way. An excellent outside-the-box thinker, he develops creative ways to deal with problems (e.g. the shoe incident, in which he has to do some rapid-fire strategizing to keep ahead of Mr. Downing). While in a dilemma, he creates new options, such as “confessing” to painting the dog in order to get Mike out of trouble. Generating ideas is more natural to him than actually carrying them out (something he leaves to Mike). He also has a taste for new experiences and “getting into atmospheres that were not his own.” Familiarity bores him, and he enjoys socializing with people who live in a different world from his. Where Mike tends to only see the obvious (someone is challenging their occupancy of the study), Psmith has a gift for reading between the lines of a situation and understanding how best to deal with it (how to manipulate events to get an authority figure to give them the study).

Auxiliary Function: Introverted Thinking (Ti)

The auxiliary function assists and balances the dominant function and is used when one helps or mentors someone. Ti is concerned with developing personal understanding of information, less concerned with whether something works and more concerned with how something works, analyzing, aiming for precision, examining for inconsistency, categorizing, figuring out how and why something functions, checking for adherence to a model/principle.

This is the function that Psmith uses when putting together a strategy. Notice he is less vocal about this than about the flow of his ideas—this is an Introverted function. It is Ti that keeps his ideas structured and consistent. Though with his ideas and speech he tends to ramble without structure, his strategies (the shoe incident again) are well thought through, providing for potential problems (dealing with invaders in the dormitory, the strategy to drive Mr. Bickersdyke crazy, etc.). We are told that “Anything in the nature of a rash and hasty move was wholly foreign to Psmith’s tactics. He had the patience which is the chief quality of the successful general. He was content to secure his base before making any offensive movement.” Ti gives him the ability to foresee possible ways that a system could break down and to provide for them (sticking an innocent shoe in the chimney as a decoy, for instance), as well as to see inconsistencies in arguments, such as his criticisms of Mr. Bickersdyke’s political policies.

Tertiary Function: Extroverted Feeling (Fe)

The tertiary function is the area where one seeks guidance and accepts help, where one is either childish or childlike and vulnerable. It can also be a source of relief, a means of unwinding, or how one expresses creativity. Fe is concerned with focusing on group values/emotions, being influenced by the emotional atmosphere, basing decisions on societal norms/others’ feelings, seeking connection and harmony with others, “people pleasing,” anticipating others’ needs/wants and seeking what is best for them, using tact.

Psmith uses his Fe to read other people and understand what makes them tick. However, since it’s a tertiary function and therefore an area of weakness, he usually uses it to manipulate people rather than out of genuine empathy. Fe tact may tone down his Ti when dealing with people, but his professed desire to maintain good relations with everyone may or may not actually be sincere. To some extent, he does have a need to connect with someone. He is good at “making friends” on a superficial level but is more vulnerable with close relationships. Note that he only has one close friend for most of the series, and when he does sincerely use Fe self-sacrifice to help Mike out, he’s not comfortable discussing it and prefers to keep it secret. Also, in Leave It to Psmith, at a time when he’s under more stress than usual, he seems more worried than usual about what others think of him—whether the Jacksons’ maid disapproves of his respelling his name, whether or not Eve will return his love, etc.

Inferior Function: Introverted Sensing (Si)

The inferior function is the area one is at one’s weakest in and least comfortable using, something one might aspire to but not be able to use well. It can emerge in times of great stress as a negative version of itself. Si is concerned with recalling past experiences, maintaining traditions, storing detailed information, linking and comparing what one knows to situations in the present, following established customs and procedures, valuing stability and the tried-and-true.

Adhering to any kind of structure, details, routine, or rules is an area of difficulty for Psmith, to whom it is more natural to innovate. He has trouble fitting into the system of school and the bank, which are highly regulated, controlled environments ideal for those who use dominant Si. However, some areas in which he manifests his Si is his “immaculate” dress, a detail-conscious interest, as well as his particularity about living conditions, how to properly make tea, etc. When inferior Si comes out under stress, it appears as withdrawal and depression, obsession with details, and intense focus on the body. While I cannot recall anywhere in the books where we see Psmith actually withdraw, the obsession with details when under stress is certainly there. The challenge of solving a newspaper puzzle appeals to him, but he easily becomes frustrated with the detail-oriented working of figuring it out. The boredom of working in the bank drives him to complain incessantly about his coworker’s lack of fashion sense. Although Psmith never really reaches the extent of worry about his health that some ENTPs in the grip of inferior Si do, his comments about his “exquisitely balanced” nerves and the famous “I get thinner and thinner” line hint at it.

Tuesday, October 29, 2013

How the MBTI Really Works, Part II: The Four Dichotomies and the Cognitive Functions

To continue our overview of how the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator works, we’ll examine the theory itself, what the four dichotomies mean, and what the cognitive functions mean.

Basics: The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a system of personality type classification. It uses an arrangement of four preferences (abbreviated E/I, S/N, T/F, J/P) to make up one’s personality type (e.g. ENFP, ISTJ). Each type also uses a series of four cognitive functions arranged in order of strength.

So, to make up your type, you have four sets of alternatives—Extroversion/Introversion, Sensing/iNtuition (abbreviated with an N to avoid confusion with Introversion), Thinking/Feeling, Judging/Perceiving. Since I prefer Introversion, Sensing, Feeling, and Judging, this means my type is ISFJ. Someone who uses the opposite preferences would be an ENTP. There are sixteen possible combinations of these preferences and therefore sixteen types, which are:

ENFP, INFP, ENFJ, INFJ

ESTJ, ISTJ, ESFJ, ISFJ

ENTP, INTP, ENTJ, INTJ

ESTP, ISTP, ESFP, ISFP

We call these sets of options between preferences the four dichotomies, which means they’re an either-or decision. There is no such thing as being borderline between two preferences; either you are or you aren’t. Often people (Introverts in particular) have learned to adopt behavior associated with preferences other than their own in order to survive in society, but the MBTI is not concerned with learned behavior. It is a matter of what your natural preference is, what comes most easily to you.

Extroversion/Introversion determines one’s source of energy—being around other people or being in one’s own head.

Extroversion

  • Energized by people, the outer world, socialization
  • Outgoing, “people person”
  • Vocal, more talkative
  • Speak first, then think
  • Open with information, easy to get to know
  • Many friends
  • Would rather work with other people, like group activity
  • Often think aloud

Introversion

  • Energized by their own thoughts and inner world, need some time alone
  • Tend to be reserved and often labeled “shy” regardless of whether they actually are
  • Quieter
  • Need time to think before communicating
  • Keep to themselves, more hesitant to share information
  • A few close friends
  • Would rather work alone or in small, trusted groups
  • Internalize ideas and spend a lot of time in their heads

Note: Society tends to be prejudiced against Introverts. I’ve heard them accusing of being everything from self-centered to antisocial to mentally ill. But there’s no shame in being an Introvert. Just because someone is more reflective and needs time alone to recharge is no indication that one hates people or has a problem. It just means one energizes differently. So, humanity in general, don’t ridicule people for being quiet. Don’t call attention to it as if it’s their own personality trait. Be polite and treat them like any other human being.

Sensing/iNtuition determines how one takes in information—concretely or abstractly.

Sensing

  • The here-and-now
  • Concrete and physical
  • Facts
  • Details
  • Practical use before theory
  • Learn through doing/experience
  • Use their five senses
  • Realistic, more concerned with “what is”
  • See what is directly in front of them
  • Traditional

iNtuition

  • The future
  • Abstract and mental (as in, “dealing with the mind”)
  • Patterns, possibilities
  • Symbols, impressions
  • Theoretical
  • Learn through thinking or reading
  • Use their impressions and read between the lines
  • Visionary, more concerned with “what could be”
  • See the big picture, underlying meanings
  • Innovative

Note: Sensing/iNtuition has nothing to do with whether one follows the rules or not. SJs are indeed very concerned with adhering to establishing procedures, but SPs are more carefree. The real difference is a matter of experience versus innovation. Neither does iNtuition necessarily mean that one is “idealistic,” “imaginative” (vague terms), or “understands people/situations intuitively” (which could easily apply to preferences like Feeling). Also, I have observed that some iNtuitives tend to look down on Sensors as more common and less intelligent than they. Remember, all the preferences play an important role in our world, and none are more important or better than another. Sensors are not unintelligent; they just have different gifts than iNtuitives. We need representatives of both preferences to balance each other out, not compete.

Thinking/Feeling determines how one makes decisions—based on logic or values.

Thinking

  • Decide based on logic
  • Objective
  • Concerned with truth
  • Rational
  • Spot inconsistencies in logic
  • Want solutions to make sense
  • Head before heart
  • Truth before tact
  • Justice before mercy
  • Impersonal
  • Can ignore the human side of problems
  • Can come across as cold and heartless

Feeling

  • Decide based on values
  • Subjective
  • Concerned with harmony
  • In touch with emotions
  • Spot potentials for conflict and disharmony
  • Want solutions to be what is best for someone (self or others)
  • Heart before head
  • Tact before truth
  • Mercy before justice
  • Personal
  • Can ignore reasoning and “hard truth”
  • Can come across as over-sensitive and irrational

Note: Thinkers do have emotions, and Feelers are capable of thought. It’s a matter of what takes the higher priority to them. Also, whether or not one readily expresses feelings does not necessarily indicate whether one is a Thinker or Feeler. Feelers who also happen to be Introverts can find it hard to share their emotions. Remember, this is about decision-making.

Judging/Perceiving determines how one orders one’s outer world—with decisiveness and control or adaptability and spontaneity.

Judging

  • Planning and order
  • Organization
  • Like things settled definitely
  • Feels better when their mind is made up
  • Like to keep life under control
  • Tend to follow projects through to completion
  • Steady worker, no last-minute rushing
  • May decide before considering all information
  • Like routine and schedules
  • Tend to be more serious
  • Hard-working
  • May not always enjoy surprises
  • Responsible
  • Stand firmly by their decisions

Perceiving

  • Flexibility and spontaneity
  • Adapts rather than organizes
  • Like to keep options open
  • Feels better when taking in new information
  • Like to keep life relaxed
  • Prefer starting projects to finishing them
  • Work in bursts of energy fueled by nearing deadlines
  • May put off making a decision for too long
  • Prefer to be unpredictable and not plan ahead
  • Tend to be more carefree
  • Leisurely
  • Love surprises and the unexpected
  • May be irresponsible
  • Can change their mind at the last minute
Note: Being a Judger does not mean that one is judgmental any more than being a Perceiver makes one more perceptive. These are just the terms the MBTI happens to use. Having a goal and focusing a task may not necessarily make one a Judger. It all depends on how one gets there.

Links for further information on the dichotomies:
 


Beyond the four preferences, types have another, deeper layer, cognitive functions, in which the preferences come together and interact with each other.

These eight possible functions are as follows:

Extroverted Sensing (Se): Taking in sensory information, “here and now” mentality, taking immediate action, interacting with one’s immediate environment, living in the moment, thrill-seeking.

Introverted Sensing (Si): Recalling past experiences, maintaining traditions, storing detailed information, linking and comparing what one knows to situations in the present, following established customs and procedures, valuing stability and the tried-and-true.

Extroverted iNtuition (Ne): Exploring possibilities, developing multiple ideas and trying as many as possible, innovating, being creative, initiating concepts for projects, looking for new options, picking up on hidden meanings and interpreting them, brainstorming and strategizing from here-and-now.

Introverted iNtuition (Ni): Connecting seemingly unrelated ideas, system-building, strategizing toward one definite outcome, reading between the lines, using insight, expressing through symbols/analogies, long-term planning, expecting outcomes not based on external data, having a vision for the future and a plan to get there.

Extroverted Thinking (Te): Making sure procedures are efficient, less concerned with precision than clarity, finding practical/pragmatic solutions, aiming for achievement and success, using external data to prove a point, planning and organizing to achieve a definite goal, using orderly logic in clear steps.

Introverted Thinking (Ti): Developing personal understanding of information, less concerned with whether something works and more concerned with how something works, analyzing, aiming for precision, examining for inconsistency, categorizing, figuring out how and why something functions, checking for adherence to a model/principle.

Extroverted Feeling (Fe): Focusing on group values/emotions, being influenced by the emotional atmosphere, basing decisions on societal norms/others’ feelings, seeking connection and harmony with others, “people pleasing,” anticipating others’ needs/wants and seeking what is best for them, using tact.

Introverted Feeling (Fi): Focusing on personal/individual values, experiencing intense emotions which are not directly expressed and may be concealed, expressing feelings indirectly, understanding and defining personal feelings/values and likes and dislikes, determining what is worthy of being valued and stood up for, balancing peace and conflict, striving for consistency of values.

Each type has four functions, one each of either of the Sensing, iNtuition, Thinking, and Feeling pairs. The first function is dominant, the second auxiliary, the third tertiary, and the fourth inferior.

Dominant: What one is best at, the default setting, what is easiest and most natural for one to use, and what one automatically falls back on.

Auxiliary: Assists and balances the dominant function, used when one helps or mentors someone.

Tertiary: The area where one seeks guidance and accepts help, where one is either childish or childlike, where one is vulnerable, but can be a source of relief, a means of unwinding, or how one expresses creativity.

Inferior: The area one is at one’s weakest in and least comfortable using, something one might aspire to but not be able to use well, can emerge in times of great stress as a negative version of itself.

The functions for each of the types are as follows.

ENFP: Ne, Fi, Te, Si

INFP: Fi, Ne, Si, Te

ENFJ: Fe, Ni, Se, Ti

INFJ: Ni, Fe, Ti, Se

ESTJ: Te, Si, Ne, Fi

ISTJ: Si, Te, Fi, Ne

ESFJ: Fe, Si, Ne, Ti

ISFJ: Si, Fe, Ti, Ne

ENTP: Ne, Ti, Fe, Si

INTP: Ti, Ne, Si, Fe

ENTJ: Te, Ni, Se, Fi

INTJ: Ni, Te, Fi, Se

ESTP: Se, Ti, Fe, Ni

ISTP: Ti, Se, Ni, Fe

ESFP: Se, Fi, Te, Ni

ISFP: Fi, Se, Ni, Te

To determine the functions in one’s type:

  • Extroverted types have an Extroverted dominant function, and Introverted types have an Introverted dominant function.
  • Extroverted types have an Introverted auxiliary function, and Introverted types have an Extroverted auxiliary function.
  • If the dominant function is Sensing or iNtuition, the auxiliary will be Thinking or Feeling, and vice versa.
  • The tertiary function is the opposite of the auxiliary.
  • The inferior function is the opposite of the dominant.
  • If Si or Ni is the dominant or auxiliary function, the type uses Judging.
  • If Te or Fe is the dominant or auxiliary function, the type uses Judging.
  • If Se or Ne is the dominant or auxiliary function, the type uses Perceiving.
  • If Ti or Fi is the dominant or auxiliary function, the type uses Perceiving.
Or you could just use the handy list above and not bother with all this. If it sounds extremely complicated, don’t panic. You don’t need to memorize this. As you become more familiar with the functions, these patterns become easier to remember.

Links for further information on the functions:
 









If any of this is all confusing or unclear, please, please ask questions. I would be glad to clarify anything.